What is the EU protecting with its “Protected Designation of Origin” and its “Protected Geographical Indicator” labels?
Protected Designations of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indicators (PGI) represent a rich tradition and history of local and specialized agricultural production. Various regions are home to famous food and beverage products that bear names symbolizing their authentic agricultural origins. And these names often represent centuries of respected culinary practices, agrarian traditions, and local expertise. Protected products may also be linked to a specific geographic area, a local microclimate, or result from a carefully bred animal or specific production technique.
PDOs cover agricultural products and foodstuffs which are wholly produced, processed, and prepared in a given geographical area using recognized expertise, and PGIs cover products that can be partially manufactured in the area. Both cases emphasize the local traditional methods of production linked to the geographical area.
When famous food and beverage names are protected, and consumers have confidence that the premium products they select are authentic, market opportunities grow.
Does the EU Have a Space Program?
Space systems or space-based technologies are the foundation of many components of modern society, from telecommunications to television, from weather forecasting to global financial and transport systems. But, the sheer scale of space projects makes it impossible for most countries to take them on alone. European countries have pooled their technological and financial resources to manage space policy through the European Commission—in cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA), an intergovernmental body run by more than 20 European countries.
European space policy focuses on four principal areas:
- Copernicus, the EU’s earth observation system;
- Galileo/EGNOS, Europe’s global navigation and satellite systems;
- Space exploration;
- Space research.
The European Union helps fund space exploration through the ESA and will also spend more than €12 billion between 2014 and 2020 on the implementation of the major EU space programs: earth observation, satellite navigation, and space research.
What is the life of a European Pill?
When a pharmaceutical company develops a new medicine, before that medicine can be marketed, the product must undergo clinical trials and secure a marketing authorization in one of two ways. The drug company can work centrally through the European Medicines Agency (EMA), an EU agency based in London. The EMA is responsible for the scientific evaluation of medicines developed by pharmaceutical companies for use in the EU. Alternatively, marketing authorization can also be obtained in a decentralized fashion by submitting the clinical trials data to each national government where the medicine will be sold.
Clinical trials determine how safe the medicine is, the potential side effects, and the effectiveness of the treatment. Once authorization is provided, the medicines can be mass produced, packaged and labeled according to EU requirements, and marketed.
This lengthy process is designed to weed out any potential substances that could prove harmful to the patient or which are simply ineffective. Take a look at the interactive infographic that describes this multi-step process.
Courtesy of the EU Delegation to the U.S.